The Relationship Between Hormones and Anxiety

Anxiety disorders are a common mental health condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Over 30% of Americans suffer from anxiety. While psychological and environmental factors play significant roles in anxiety, emerging research suggests that hormones also contribute to its development and severity. Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various bodily functions, including mood and stress response. This article explores the relationship between hormones and anxiety, highlighting key hormones involved and their effects on anxiety levels.


Cortisol, often referred to as the “stress hormone,” is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress. It helps regulate the body’s stress response by increasing blood sugar levels, enhancing brain function, and suppressing non-essential functions. However, chronic or excessive cortisol production can lead to increased anxiety and other related symptoms.

Adrenaline and Noradrenaline:

Adrenaline and noradrenaline, also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine, respectively, are released during the body’s “fight-or-flight” response to stress. These hormones prepare the body for action by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. Elevated levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline can trigger anxiety symptoms, such as racing thoughts, restlessness, and a heightened sense of fear.

Thyroid Hormones:

Thyroid hormones, including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), play a crucial role in regulating metabolism and energy levels. Imbalances in thyroid function, such as hyperthyroidism (excessive hormone production) or hypothyroidism (insufficient hormone production), can lead to mood disturbances, including anxiety.

Estrogen and Progesterone:

In females, estrogen and progesterone are the primary sex hormones that fluctuate during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. Research suggests that these hormonal fluctuations can influence anxiety levels, with some women experiencing heightened anxiety during certain phases of their cycle or during menopause. Estrogen has been found to have an anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effect, while progesterone can have both anxiolytic and anxiogenic (anxiety-inducing) effects, depending on the context.


Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone, but it is also present in females in smaller amounts. Studies have suggested a potential link between low testosterone levels and increased anxiety in both men and women. However, the relationship between testosterone and anxiety is complex, and more research is needed to understand the mechanisms involved.

The relationship between hormones and anxiety is intricate, with various hormones influencing anxiety levels in different ways. Cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline can contribute to anxiety when their levels are chronically elevated. Thyroid hormones, estrogen, and progesterone can also impact anxiety levels due to their influence on mood regulation. Testosterone’s role in anxiety is still being studied. Understanding the interplay between hormones and anxiety can help develop more comprehensive treatment approaches, taking into account both psychological and physiological factors. Further research is needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms and develop targeted interventions for individuals with hormone-related anxiety disorders.